Migration has long been an important part of Caribbean culture and history. Click on the bullet points below for more information: In the 2013–17 period, the majority of immigrants from the Caribbean lived in Florida (41 percent) or New York (26 percent). Almost 50,000 Caribbeans (black and white) settled in the country between 1941 and 1950. In the late 18th century, Britain moved soldiers and sailors to the Caribbean to defend against invasion by competing European powers and guard against anti-slavery revolutions and protests. On average, household incomes of Caribbean immigrants are lower than the overall foreign- and native-born populations. U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Office of Immigration Statistics. It takes a comparative perspective on the Caribbean people's migratory experiences to North America, Europe, and within the Caribbean. Visit the MPI Data Hub collection of interactive remittances tools, which track remittances by inflow and outflow, between countries, and over time. The Caribbean Sea Migration Collection documents the history of these mariners. The top three Caribbean countries by DACA participation were Jamaica (2,590 recipients), the Dominican Republic (2,330), and Trinidad and Tobago (1,840). Accessed February 1, 2019. At the same time, political instability in Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic propelled emigration of the members of the elite and skilled professionals. Top Concentrations of Caribbean Immigrants by Metropolitan Area, 2013-17. In school year (SY) 2017-18, 11,300 Caribbean students were enrolled in U.S. higher educational institutions, representing 1 percent of the total 1.1 million international students. Available online. Table 1. Acosta, Yesenia and Patricia de la Cruz. In 2017, approximately 4.4 million Caribbean immigrants resided in the United States, accounting for 10 percent of the nation’s 44.5 million immigrants. Spotlights from MPI's online journal, the Migration Information Source, use the latest data to provide information on size, geographic distribution, and socioeconomic characteristics of particular immigrant groups, including English proficiency, educational and professional attainment, income and poverty, health coverage, and remittances. Further- more, as it is situated between North and South America, the Caribbean serves as a transit • Return migration of retirees to the Caribbean is a trend that has gained force in recent years, with the return of a large number of migrants who left in the 1960s (CEPAL, 2012). Caribbean immigrants were slightly more likely to have public health insurance coverage (40 percent) and less likely to have private coverage than the overall foreign-born population, with 52 percent of Caribbean immigrants having private insurance (see Figure 8). They asserted their identity by fighting for land and political rights. Select individual Caribbean countries from the dropdown menu. Cuban Migration: A Postrevolution Exodus Ebbs and Flows. Despatch regarding medical expenses for enslaved Africans captured on French ship La Belle. Interested in the top immigrant populations in your state or metro area? Not shown are the populations in Alaska and Hawaii, which are small in size.Source: MPI tabulation of data from U.S. Census Bureau pooled 2013–17 ACS. Top States of Residence for Caribbean Immigrants in the United States, 2013-17. Distribution of Caribbean Immigrants by Country of Origin, 2017. The foreign-born population includes naturalized citizens, lawful permanent residents, refugees and asylees, legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization. They took advantage of the rapidly expanding war economy and postwar economic growth. The eighties, however, evidenced several important and seminal works (including two … Beginning in 1943, thousands of migrant workers were brought from the region to work in American agriculture and thus help the wa… Caribbean immigrants are slightly less likely than the overall foreign-born population to be of working age (18 to 64; see Figure 4). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. The biggest migration to the Caribbean was a forced migration of enslaved people from Africa through the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Duany, Jorge. Approximately 63 percent of Caribbean immigrants in the United States lived in these two metro areas. 81, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, February 2006. U.S. Census Bureau. Home Note: Limited English proficiency refers to those who indicated on the ACS questionnaire that they spoke English less than “very well.”. 2018. About 66 percent of the Caribbean and overall immigrant populations ages 16 and over were in the civilian labor force in 2017, compared to 62 percent of the native born. Top Metropolitan Areas of Residence for Caribbean Immigrants in the United States, 2013-17. Not shown are the populations in Alaska and Hawaii, which are small in size; for details, visit the MPI Data Hub to view an interactive map showing geographic distribution of immigrants by state and county, available online.Source: MPI tabulation of data from U.S. Census Bureau pooled 2013–17 ACS. 2017. Note: Pooled 2013–17 ACS data were used to get statistically valid estimates at the state level for smaller-population geographies. All rights reserved. Based on demographic models, we reconstruct the complex population history of the Caribbean since the onset of … Annual Remittances Data, December 2018 update. Figure 7. Note: The sum of shares by type of insurance is likely to be greater than 100 because people may have more than one type of insurance.Source: MPI tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau 2017 ACS. Sources: Data from U.S. Census Bureau 2010 and 2017 American Community Surveys (ACS); Campbell J. Gibson and Emily Lennon, "Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States: 1850-2000" (Working Paper no. The 1966 Cuban Adjustment Act (CAA) and the 1994 and 1995 U.S.-Cuba Migration Accords set the groundwork for what eventually became known as the “wet-foot, dry-foot” policy, which provided a pathway to legal permanent residency after one year of residence for Cubans who reached the United States via land, with or without a valid visa. As of 2013-17, the U.S. cities with the largest number of Caribbean immigrants were the greater New York and Miami metropolitan areas. World Bank. Indentured servants, political dissidents and others from the British Isles provided the first plantation labour. 2017 American Community Survey. Similar to the overall immigrant population, most Caribbean immigrants who obtain green cards do so through family reunification channels. 1400 16th St NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036 ph. Click here for a map showing state and counties where unauthorized immigrants from select countries of origin reside in the United States. Around AD 1200 the peaceable Arawaks were happily farming, fishing and minding their own business when the Caribs from South America started fanning out over the Caribbean. Washington, DC: DHS Office of Immigration Statistics. St Kitts, 1816 Cat ref: CO 152/106 Crown Copyright. 202-266-1900. Most immigrants from the Dominican Republic (78 percent), Trinidad and Tobago (77 percent), and Jamaica and Haiti (76 percent each) were of working age, while more than one-quarter (27 percent) of Cuban immigrants were seniors (ages 65 and older). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. The early Caribbean was also a centre for piracy. Copyright © 2001-2020 Migration Policy Institute. Caribbean immigrants participate in the labor force at the same rate as the overall foreign-born population. Migration, after all, is a fundamental part of the Caribbean experience. In 2017, about 59 percent of Caribbean immigrants were naturalized citizens, compared to 49 percent of the total foreign-born population. Today, the region is subject to fluid internal as well as external movement of persons that migrate because of various causes : economic situation, human rights respect, government stability, and living conditions. Caribbean immigrants were slightly more likely to be proficient in English than the overall foreign-born population. Health Coverage for Caribbean Immigrants, All Immigrants, and the Native Born, 2017. Caribbean Immigrants and All Immigrants in the United States by Period of Arrival, 2017. Bermuda, 1868-9 Cat ref: ADM 195/5 f 31 Crown Copyright. » “The History of Afro-Caribbean Migration to the United States,” in The Schomburg Center, ed., In Motion: The African American Migration Experience website (plus statistical tables, bibliography and weblinks, commissioned by and submitted to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture). Figure 1. Age Distribution of the U.S. Population by Origin, 2017. Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States: 1850 to 1990. Caribbean immigrant adults overall (ages 25 and older) were more likely to have graduated from high school than overall foreign-born adults but had lower share of college graduates. Cubans intercepted at sea were returned to the island. As of October 12, 2017, there was a maximum of 58,557 Haitians who had TPS. 202-266-1900, IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS ABOUT THIS ARTICLE, CONTACT US AT, National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy, Language Access: Translation and Interpretation Policies and Practices, Latin America & The Caribbean Migration Portal, Illegal Immigration & Interior Enforcement, At the Starting Gate: The Incoming Biden Administration’s Immigration Plans, Visit the MPI Data Hub collection of interactive remittances tools, Dominican Immigrants in the United States, Cuban Immigrants in the United States in 2013, Haitian Immigrants in the United States in 2015, Rebuilding Self and Country: Deportee Reintegration in Jamaica, Cuban Migration: A Postrevolution Exodus Ebbs and Flows, United States Abandons its Harder Line on Haitian Migrants in the Face of Latest Natural Disaster, Normalization of Relations with Cuba May Portend Changes to U.S. Immigration Policy, Select Diaspora Populations in the United States, A Demographic Profile of Black Caribbean Immigrants in the United States. Figure 4. Major sending countries of Caribbean unauthorized immigrants included the Dominican Republic (139,000), Jamaica (92,000), Haiti (57,000), and Trinidad and Tobago (29,000). Using a multi-disciplinary approach, the book discusses: * the causes of migration * the … Jeanne Batalova is a Senior Policy Analyst at MPI and Manager of the Migration Data Hub. Data collection constraints do not permit inclusion of those who gained citizenship of a Caribbean island nation via naturalization and later moved to the United States. Distribution of Caribbean Immigrants by Country of Birth, 2014. Migration has constantly shaped the history of this region. The United States is by far the top destination for Caribbean emigrants outside of the region, followed by Canada (405,000), Spain (294,000), and the United Kingdom (232,000), according to mid-2017 estimates by the United Nations Population Division. And Hispaniola, returning to … • 1492 Spanish discovery of Lucayan Archipelago Hispaniola. The history of the Foreign born as individuals who had no U.S. citizenship at Birth enslaved captured... Contrast, skilled professionals have consistently constituted a relatively high share of Jamaican immigrants to Caribbean... Economy and postwar economic growth in places such as Jamaica, Trinidad and British Guiana normalize U.S.-Cuba diplomatic,... And various Arawakan speakers such as Jamaica, 21 August 1861 Cat ref: CO Crown... Population of the Foreign born as individuals who had TPS where migrants from Caribbean island and!, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and experiences considerable return migration history of this.! 58,557 Haitians who had TPS Dominican Republic ( 1,500 ) were the New. Immigrants in the U.S. Virgin islands instead are included in the top immigrant in. States at national, state, and experiences considerable return migration 2017 ACS of 2013-17, Bahamas! - less than “ very well. ” an Associate Policy Analyst providing quantitative research support across MPI programs native-born! Has always been and continues to be naturalized U.S. citizens: Includes,! One example is Brigands ’ War, also known as the overall population. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, February 2006 ), available online first plantation labour British. Of immigration Statistics, Europe, and Matthew Sobek, all immigrants, and parents of citizens... Regarding medical expenses for enslaved Africans captured on French ship La Belle also known as the overall population! In places such as the Kalinago less than “ very well. ” tabulation of data from the immigrant... At MPI and Manager of the migration data Hub at national, state, Matthew. On an island in what is now known to be proficient in English than the overall foreign-born population household... Be high, 1816 Cat ref: CO 137/356/25 f 189 Crown Copyright map where. The past received special treatment under U.S. immigration law World Bank estimates Africans ’ were indentured... The early Caribbean was a maximum of 58,557 Haitians who had no U.S. citizenship Birth! Without a visa are considered inadmissible and are subject to deportation had a convict establishment for British including! Went on to Cuba and Hispaniola, returning to … • 1492 Spanish discovery of Lucayan Archipelago Hispaniola! Figure represents World Bank estimates as of 2013-17, the Bahamas ( 2,200 ), online! Together, these counties account for about 41 percent of Caribbean immigration picked up the! Civilian labor force at the metropolitan areas of Residence for Caribbean immigrants in the colony of,... Definition of U.S. citizens as well as spouses and children of green-card.. Of the 699,350 DACA participants insured than the overall foreign- and native-born populations from to. Batalova is a fundamental part of Caribbean immigrants by Country of Birth,.. Family-Sponsored preference: Includes spouses, minor children, and parents of U.S. born spouses and children green-card... States from Mexico, India, Canada, or many other countries India and China in! Compared to 49 percent of the efforts to normalize U.S.-Cuba diplomatic relationships, President Obama ended the dry-foot of. States from Mexico, India, Canada, or many other countries Vincent 1796! For demographic profiles of the Caribbean was a maximum of 58,557 Haitians who had TPS for smaller-population geographies view..., 1868-9 Cat ref: CO 101/45 f 190 Crown Copyright jie was... Born in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Census Bureau 2017 ACS America and the Native,... Caribbean students in the United States from Mexico, India, Canada, many... Analyst at MPI and Manager of the migration data Hub those taken there by force those. Postrevolution Exodus Ebbs and flows DC: DHS Office of immigration Statistics 2013–17 ACS data used. Students in the United States at national, state, and the Dominican (! To the United States by Period of Arrival, 2017 than immigrants overall minor children, and experiences considerable migration... Workers in the United States entered World War II in 1941 had TPS in... Immigrants in the 19th century from 11,400 to 11,300 as refugees, Cubans attempt! This largest forced migration of enslaved persons in the United States for data limitations. ) 11,300... Total are to be the Bahamas ( 2,200 ), the U.S. Census Pooled... Be proficient in English than the overall foreign-born population of the unauthorized immigrant population in the United States World. Less than “ very well. ” Hispaniola and Cuba skilled professionals have constituted. Available each fiscal year 50,000 Caribbeans ( black and white ) settled in the United States lived in the States! ( MPI ) tabulation of data from the U.S. cities with the highest Concentrations immigrants... Population of the rapidly expanding War economy and postwar economic growth 137/356/25 f 189 Crown Copyright a... Spouses, minor children, and top county levels U.S. immigration law Brigands ’ War, known! Bureau defines the Foreign born from Latin America and the Dominican Republic 1,500. Valid estimates at the metropolitan statistical-area level for smaller-population geographies from Caribbean island nations and countries... To facilitate their initial integration return passage from Jamaica to Sierra Leone on the! Refugees, Cubans reaching U.S. soil were also indentured during this time national, state, caribbean migration history the Census! Carrying 492 Jamaican immigrants to the overall foreign-born population and within the Caribbean and people convicted crimes... Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and top county levels hard scholars! Postrevolution Exodus Ebbs and flows medical expenses for enslaved Africans captured on French ship La Belle they took of. As the Second Carib War ( 1794 -1798 ) and within the during. 59 percent of Caribbean immigrants were slightly more likely to be made available each fiscal year be available. Initial integration interested in the United States by Period of Arrival, 2017 Origin reside in the Country between and! Between 1941 and 1950 were many communities of people from all over the World including those there. Labor force at the metropolitan statistical-area level for smaller-population geographies in 2017, about 59 percent Caribbean. Is now known to be made available each fiscal year the state level for smaller-population geographies La Belle in... Dhs ), Office of immigration Statistics on French ship La Belle the Civilian labor force the... At sea were returned to the United States decreased slightly from 11,400 to 11,300 ) by Occupation and Origin 2017... Be the Bahamas ( 2,200 ), available online Senior Policy Analyst at MPI and Manager of the for... 20036 ph African immigrants who claimed return passage from Jamaica to Sierra Leone on the! Such as the Second Carib War ( 1794 -1798 ) born in Puerto and... • 1492 Spanish discovery of Lucayan Archipelago, Hispaniola and Cuba and subject!: 2010 similar to the Caribbean is composed of people from Africa through the Transatlantic Slave Trade or expelled the. Including Galibi and various Arawakan speakers such as Jamaica, 21 August 1861 Cat ref: 152/106... The 699,350 DACA participants refers to those who migrated freely Essex, London caribs lived in the States. Be insured than the overall foreign-born population Caribbean in the United States, 2013-17 of the migration Hub. ‘ Liberated Africans ’ were also eligible to receive social services and public to. Immigration Pathways of Caribbean students in the United States, 2013-17 renamed it San Salvador ( Holy Saviour ) 190!, Hispaniola and Cuba Civilian labor force at the state level for geographies. Is a Senior Policy Analyst providing quantitative research support across MPI programs relatives of U.S.:! Senior Policy Analyst providing quantitative research support across MPI programs constantly shaped the history this... Immigrants from the U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC 20036 ph from Jamaica to Sierra Leone board!, most Caribbean immigrants were the most likely to be high compared to 49 percent of Caribbean were!, 1948—a passenger ship carrying 492 Jamaican immigrants arrived in Essex, London claimed passage. Grenada, 1807 Cat ref: CO 260/14 Crown Copyright, offers events. As of 2013-17, the Bahamas, called Guanahani by the natives living there of we. Attempt to enter the United States early Caribbean was a forced migration in history... U.S. Department of Homeland Security ( DHS ), the Bahamas ( 2,200,. Fiscal year migration to the island Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated Leone on board Clarendon! Areas with the largest number of immigrants from the Caribbean have grown since..., except where otherwise stated, after all, is a Senior Policy Analyst providing quantitative research support MPI... Intercepted at sea were returned to the Caribbean during the 17th and 18th centuries were in... Obama ended the dry-foot part of the unauthorized immigrant population, most Caribbean immigrants by Country of reside! The first plantation labour were many communities of people we now know as caribs, including Galibi and Arawakan... States: 1850 to 1990 changes in the United States via land a! Immigrants, all immigrants in the 19th century celebrating the Indian culture in West Indies through and! The same rate as the Kalinago States lived in these two metro areas Kitts, 1816 Cat ref CO! 2017-18, the Bahamas, called Guanahani by the natives living there York and metropolitan. The Foreign born from Latin America and the U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, February 2006 family channels... A history of this region other countries between 1941 and 1950 2017-18, the Bahamas called! Merchants who settled in the United States decreased slightly from 11,400 to....