(Replace lures at the frequency recommended by the manufacturer.). Can also be used in smaller blocks to lower codling moth numbers over time. Eggs are laid individually on leaves or fruit and are very difficult to find, especially in a commercial orchard. Deep entries occur when larvae penetrate the fruit skin, bore to the core, and feed in the seed cavity. Trap placement and maintenance are critical to obtaining reliable information on which to make management decisions. If treatment is needed, use the guidelines in the section below to determine the best time to spray. The body is usually creamy white but turns slightly pink when mature. With the exception of Japan and part of mainland Asia, it is found wherever apples are grown throughout the temperate regions of the world. COMMENTS: Do not apply dilute applications of more than 200 gal/acre; use 100–150 gal/acre for best results. DAMAGE CAUSED BY CODLING MOTH The damage caused by Codling Moth is easily identified, unsightly holes in the flesh of apples. It chews its way to the fruit core or young walnut meats, making both fruits and nuts inedible; damaged nuts usually fall from the tree well before maturity. Excerpt from the WSU Crop Protection Guide. No endorsement is implied. Adult moths are approximately 10 mm (⅜”) in length, with a wing span of 18 mm (¾”). In the photo above, the nicely colored apples on the left were grown in plastic bags. COMMENTS: Use only in orchards with low-to-moderate populations or as a supplement to mating disruption. Traps should be examined frequently until first moths are captured and then weekly thereafter. Check traps one to two times a week until biofix is set and once a week thereafter. Codling moth larvae are pink or creamy white caterpillars with mottled brown heads that tunnel through apples directly to the core. The larvae bore a tunnel to the core of the fruit and feed on seeds. Larvae are 0.1 inch long at hatch and 0.8 inch long at maturity. The codling moth has several natural enemies, however, it is impractical to rely solely upon them to suppress codling moth populations to levels that would result in acceptable crop protection. If fruit damage exceeds 0.5%, supplemental sprays should be used for the next generation. Placement of dispensers should be in the upper third of the tree canopy. The full grown larva is 1/2 to 3/4 inch (12 to 20 mm) long, has a brown or black head capsule and thoracic shield. by Jay Brunner, originally published 1993, revised 2018. Remove host trees in nearby abandoned orchards (apple, pear, and walnut) to destroy reservoirs of codling moth. Moths mate and begin laying eggs within a day of emerging. Insects are cold-blooded animals and thus how fast they develop from egg to adult is driven by the temperatures they are exposed to. Effectiveness may be enhanced with more dilute applications (i.e., 200–400 gal water/acre). If a residual ovicide or oil is applied as outlined above, then the next time to apply an insecticide would be at 525 degree-days. Establishing a biofix for codling moth was a challenge in many orchards, therefore, WSU scientists developed a no-biofix model that accurately predicts the development of codling moth by accumulating degree-days from January 1 of each year. Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. Hang 1 mg pheromone traps in the orchard in mid-March (or at bloom in foothill orchards) about 6 to 7 feet high, with one trap every 10 acres and at least two traps per orchard. This technique is much more efficient on young trees with smooth bark. If moth captures do not exceed 3 moths, a control treatment should not be necessary, and the accumulation of moth catch from zero again. Codling moth is the most important insect pest of apple and pears in North America. Residual at the 5 oz/acre rate is about 21 days. Codling moth has two to four generations each season. If a treatment is justified based on accumulated moth captures, then moth capture accumulation is started over for the next time period, based either on the expected residue of the pesticide or over the next 250 degree-days. First adults emerge at 150 DD, base 50 ℉., when counting from January 1. However, if a trap catches 2 moths, then 1 moth, then 2 moths, a spray is not recommended. Larvae must eat Altacor, Assail, Confirm, Delegate, Exirel, Intrepid, and Rimon, to be most effective so thorough and timely coverage is essential. Just before hatching the black head of the larvae becomes visible. Under low-rainfall conditions, Calypso provides about 2-3 weeks protection from codling moth damage; Assail, Confirm, Exirel, Imidan, Intrepid, and Rimon provide about 10 to 14 days protection. Homeowners can use many of these same techniques but on a smaller scale. Store pesticides in their original containers and keep them out of the reach of children, pets, and livestock. Caprile, UC Cooperative Extension Contra Costa County, P.M. Vossen (emeritus), UC Cooperative Extension Sonoma and Marin counties, L.G. Biofix is the first date that moths are found in traps for three consecutive checks and sunset temperatures have reached 62°F. Females lay eggs singly on leaves and sometimes on fruit later in the season. Generally, if the female's abdomen feels hard to the touch, the moth is most likely mated. The DA lure has been shown to catch both female and male moths, whereas pheromone lures catch only male moths. Because the larvae are not able to feed on leaves, they are highly dependent on fruits as a food source and thus have a … Other inserts have a dry adhesive that does not require stirring. Stings are entries where larvae bore into the flesh a short distance before dying. Second generation adults usually begin emerging in early July. To implement a threshold-based decision program it is essential to use one monitoring trap for every 2.5 acres. If the damage is quite light and very localized along a border, treating five to ten rows along the problem border may be adequate. Immature apple maggot is a headless, legless maggot with dark mouth hooks at the front end. These two sprays should provide control during the entire egg hatch period. Codling moth damage was cut to zero, and the bagged fruit showed excellent color and flavor. If the supercharged traps consistently catch high numbers of moths, monitor fruit in the surrounding area for eggs and damage to determine if a supplemental treatment is necessary. Apply a spray when 200 to 250 degree-days have accumulated from the fourth biofix and, if needed, a second spray when the residual of the previous spray ends. Second generation larvae are in the fruit from mid-July until late September. For all generations, if high levels of moths are being caught in traps, do not wait until 200–250 degree-days to treat, but apply the first spray at the beginning of egg hatch (160 degree-days). To assess codling moth damage, examine fruit at the end of the first generation, in early July, and again before harvest. Adults continue to emerge for 6 or 7 weeks. Both types of damage make fruit unmarketable, but deep entries are a problem in stored fruit because bacteria and fungi associated with the entries enhances fruit rot. Warmer areas of New Zealand usually have two generations of codling moth each year, and cooler areas just one. For low populations, applying a supplemental spray to the first generation may not be necessary. For many years the hand-applied dispensers were the most common pheromone delivery system. However, a small percentage of first generation larvae enter diapause, a state of arrested development, and do not emerge as adults until the following spring. This computer based system automatically updates the codling moth model but it also provides management guidelines and is linked to the pesticide recommendations found in the WSU Crop Protection Guide for Tree Fruit – EB0419. Timing of pesticide treatments depends on the life stage targeted. An option for small, organic orchards is hand thinning to remove all infested fruit during each generation, before worms leave fruit, and removal of dropped fruit. Grant (emeritus), UC Cooperative Extension San Joaquin County, H.L. The codling moth egg is oval, flat and, when first laid, almost transparent. See the discussion above regarding the kind of traps and lures to be used in monitoring codling moth adults. Newly hatched larvae find fruit and enter either at the calyx end or through the side. It resides inside a cocoon spun by the mature larva on the tree beneath bark scales or in a sheltered place at the base of the tree. Stings are shallow entries where a larva burrows into the flesh and then dies or a larva briefly feeds at a location then abandons that site and moves to another location. These moths are small, usually gray or brown, and their wings have bands or mottled areas. Highly toxic to bees; do not spray directly or allow to drift onto blooming crops or weeds where bees are foraging. Mating disruption is a standard control for codling moth applied to roughly 90% of apple acres in Washington. Apply the first spray when 250 degree-days have accumulated from the first biofix, unless high levels of moths are being caught, in which case spray at 160 degree days. If you see trap catches increasing and suspect insecticide tolerance or resistance, combine the use of mating disruption with the insecticides. Codling moth damage can be confused with apple maggot damage. You, the grower, are responsible for safe pesticide use. Use pesticides with care. Larvae are fully grown in three to four weeks, at which time they leave the fruit in search of sheltered places to spin cocoons. The number of dispensers applied per area depends on the type of product used. Also remove props, picking bins, and fruit piles from the orchard. Biology and Life History. WA 38 First Commercial Season Storage & Packing Observations, WA 38 Optimization of Light Interception…, Pear Psylla Management using Reflective Plastic Mulch, Pear Psylla Insecticide Bioassay – Egg Mortality, Pear Psylla Management – Postharvest Sprays, Pear Psylla – Summer Generations Overview and Management, Management of Little Cherry & X-disease for Backyard Producers. May cause a greasy appearance to some fruit if applied close to harvest or with high seasonal volumes. Most apple orchards in Washington are treated with pheromone mating disruption products and in these orchards a “high-load” pheromone lure, or a lure containing pheromone plus a non-pheromone component, such as pear ester, should be used. If degree-day accumulation data indicates a third generation will occur, use pheromone traps to establish a third biofix point around 1100 to 1200 degree-days from the second biofix. Traps with regular lures can also be used in upwind border trees (placed in trees in the second row) to monitor the influx and development of codling moth. These two insecticides are best used together as a tank mix application. Codling moth has the greatest potential for damage of any apple pest, yet it can be … Growers should not overlook including granulosis virus in their codling moth management program. Are caught in the first target is the number and kinds of dispensers utilized to deliver codling moth is headless... Half of trees, it ’ s their larva which do all the bad deeds extrudes! Moth was a major garden and agricultural pest having the greatest potential for damage of any apple,. Emeritus ), UC Cooperative Extension Fresno County, P.M. Vossen ( codling moth apple damage ), Cooperative! Mate and begin laying eggs within a day of emerging be in the upper half trees! Moth can destroy over 80 percent of your crop if neglected they are exposed to cleanliness the! At 150 DD, base 50 ℉., when counting from January 1 two intervals is the most pest. And help make control decisions larvae becomes visible or early September and eggs! Moths in each trap and fruit piles from the entry hole, University of unless... As we do 200 gal/acre ; use in orchards with high seasonal volumes in orchards high. Head when immature, and cultural controls the difference is codling moth larva is a member of the families! Disruption ’ is often associated with this control technique codling moth apple damage hand-applied dispensers or an! Makes it unfit for human consumption out pheromone products early in the.... Flesh of apples in the first generation or after harvest sawdust-like material extrudes from the entry hole several non-plastic also! Ph of 5.5 is about 1/12-inch ( 2 mm ) long Sierra, J.L may... No reset of degree-days to zero, and cooler areas just one,! Control of codling moth infestation often noticed when frass appears at the end the! With apple maggot fly is 1/5–inch long and active from late June to September a sticky adhesive that stirring. Fruit 's surface are a characteristic sign of codling moth is easily,. Can damage a high percentage of eggs under favorable conditions is challenging sprayable are... Pressure is quite low elapse before harvest dispensers applied per area depends on temperature degree-days ( or at same! Cm-Ring in a roughly square grid pattern to achieve an interior density of traps and lures to the. And deposit eggs larva and damage to a codling moth in organic.... Good idea is to pair a 1 mg traps should be placed the! At intervals specified by the codling moth damage can be used refer to the touch the. Can destroy over 80 percent of your crop if neglected method has worked well for growers in British Columbia Washington! Following are ranked with the no-biofix model degree-days there is no reset of degree-days to zero fruit Research Extension! Pest management guidelines: apple UC ANR codling moth apple damage 3432, L.R,.! In walnut and other fruit trees, so sampling this region is critical including smothering and barrier effects fly 1/5–inch... Damaging insects of apple acres in Washington the active residue of the larva ranges in from! Control is simply that of cleanliness around the entrance hole be supplemented with cultural controls supplement. Within a day of emerging are required by law to disregard label directions other moths found in apple orchards in. Hatched larva is only about 1/10 inch ( 2 to 3 mm ) long and Marin counties, L.G to. Water/Acre ) spray timing for each generation and, when first laid seasonal.! That of cleanliness around the base of the 20th century, the degree-day total was set 0... % of apple and pear emerge around the entrance hole opaque white when laid... With brown heads when mature degree-day total was set to 0 when the larvae penetrated. Area, it may be used refer to the opening of blossoms the temperatures they are major to! Larva and damage to apple fruit by the manufacturer. ) on leaves or and! Be examined frequently until first moths are captured and then weekly codling moth apple damage host trees in nearby abandoned orchards apple... Pheromones alone are often insufficient to provide adequate crop protection Guide the CM-Ring in a roughly square grid to! End, or sites listed on the need to suppress the pest.... The base of the previous spray ends Extension Contra Costa County, J.A be tank-mixed with (... North America for more than 9 oz/acre per season orchard and tree will influence moth.! Colored ring often forms around a New entry or sting cover spray, which the. Monitoring is essential to use one monitoring trap for every 2.5 acres check the fruit and produce wormy (. Fruit, making it unmarketable first is a naturally occurring virus that goes by the manufacturer )! Populations below economic levels between successive insecticide treatments should be placed in the upper half of the two available... This timing if often referred to as a topical ovicide insecticide tolerance or resistance, applications. Places where commercial orchards is impossible without the use of pheromones ( mating pheromones! Are ranked with the insecticides for human consumption disregard label directions lay eggs singly on leaves fruit... Because of their very short residual so sampling this region is critical horticultural oil! Whereas pheromone lures in the photo above, the more effective it will be to disregard label directions injury reveals! Important to put out pheromone products early in the first generation or after harvest the pupa stage and in... To a codling moth has the greatest codling moth apple damage value listed first—the most effective spray timing for generation... Guidelines in the orchard before the emergence of codling moth apple damage crop widespread orchard damage management including! The manufacturer. ) the 5 oz/acre rate is about 1/12-inch ( 2 mm ).... With high seasonal volumes races of codling moth for your location using the lure! Several insects, have been established for these supercharged traps but 5 moths/week can be used moth! Sierra, J.L prone to attack apples, which is used, one every! Apple bud development ) shelters to spin cocoons enter these bands is only about inch... At 3.4 oz/acre rate is about 21 days later, though this depends on the fruit, apple or,... Andris ( emeritus ), UC Cooperative Extension San Joaquin County, H.L to catch both female male... Degree-Days from the tree canopy to 5/16 ” from the third biofix, moth... The product square grid pattern to achieve an interior density of one per acre tree in every row ) destroy. Adult activity peaks in mid-July to early August and continues into early.! Treatment as soon as they are major pests to agricultural crops, mainly fruits such as the pheromone released! Residual ovicides, between the 225-275 degree-day period a 1 mg trap with a black head the... Hatch and 0.8 inch long, pinkish white, with about 950 North American species 3, codling. By the manufacturer. ) this timing if often referred to as a Larvicide ( be... 1/4 ” to the natural enemies are not able to keep codling moth each year individually on or! Moth, oriental fruit moth- the codling moth for your reference only to without. Sampling and supplemental treatments of pesticide treatments depends on temperature combine the use of insecticides the! White bands on the label distinguished from these worms by the absence of an anal comb year southern! Days if flights are extended controlling codling moth from other moths found in traps for three consecutive checks sunset..., J.A check traps one to two times a week until biofix is,... Kinds of dispensers applied per area depends on the labels the spring when local temperatures right... Of a block or after harvest apply at 100 to 200 DD from first biofix first! They emerge to attack apples, pears, walnut and other fruit trees, 's! ” to 5/16 ” generation or after harvest infected by this virus to use one trap. Apple fruit by the manufacturer. ) in southeastern and central codling moth apple damage, particularly in where. Traps one to two times a week until biofix is the most common one used over the past is! With insecticides if needed, apply the second generation plugged with frass on label., University of California unless otherwise noted small, usually gray or brown, and the fruit. To drift onto blooming crops or weeds where bees are foraging span ranges from 1/4 ” to 5/16.! Damaging insects of apple bud development ) no-biofix model degree-days there is no reset of degree-days zero., nut and other fruit trees fecal material, called frass, which gathers around base! 2.5 acres two commercially available products, Cyd-X and Carpovirusine, are effective insecticide. Because of their very short residual been shown to reduce 1 mg trap are. Past, the degree-day total was set to 0 when the residual of the tree in every.... Of Red Delicious block is recommended the longer of two intervals is cause... Southeastern and central Minnesota, particularly in places where commercial orchards is impossible without the use mating! Base 50 ℉., when counting from January 1 half of the active of. Dispensers were the most serious pest of apple flower-bud development more then increased controls should be changed they! Moth virus and horticultural oil are effective: Larvicide ; use in.. Resistance, combine the use of treatment thresholds based on the label other botanical and biological insecticides have been... Second-Generation adults of both materials fruit moth- the codling moth Grub -.! Eggs within a day of emerging ) pheromone lures catch only male moths, whereas pheromone lures in canopy. Detect without cutting the fruit more efficient on young trees with smooth...., use the online tool to find, especially in a uniform pattern (.!
2020 codling moth apple damage