Abstract: Exploit development is an arm race between attackers and defenders. Code reuse attack is an attack that an attacker can rearrange the program code sequence to form a malicious code fragment. The first code example appeared in the server message block (SMB) module of WannaCry in 2017, Mydoom in 2009, Joanap, and DeltaAlfa. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Wang, C. (2019). Code-reuse attacks are software exploits in which an attacker directs control flow through existing code with a malicious result. Thus, the primary challenge is determining whether such an execution exists, and if so, how to trigger it. In this thesis, I will introduce the development of code reuse attacks in recent years together with control flow integrity (CFI). Each gadget used in the attack ends in a return instruction, employing the return register (link register) to control the flow of execution. Automated approaches to unpacking malware is a well-studied Georgios Portokalidis came to MIT to talk about his recent work on understanding code-reuse attacks. Code reuse attacks have been a longtime problem, dating back almost 20 years. Code pointer integrity is another great approach that helps mitigate this problem, and is a more “complete” version of CFI. Existing techniques to defend against these attacks provide ad hoc solutions or lack in features necessary to provide comprehensive and adoptable solutions. Code-reuse includes attacks such as return-to-libc [74], ROP [75], Call-Oriented Programming [76], and Jump-Oriented Programming [77]. programming without sacrificing expressive power. For example, return-oriented programming is an effective code-reuse attack in which short code sequences ending in a ret instruction are found within existing binaries and executed in arbitrary order by taking control of the stack. However, attacks have also evolved to a new level of sophistication. availability of these jump-oriented gadgets in the GNU libc library and demonstrated contain code-reuse attacks. I am excited to track this work and see what new results they have! Control-flow integrity techniques offer a promising direction for preventing code-reuse attacks, but these attacks are resilient against imprecise and heuristic-based detection and prevention mechanisms. A new class of attacks, namely the code-reuse attacks, dominated in the last decade due to their capability of by-passing DEP. What is a code reuse attack? gadgets) with mainly returns and indirect calls/jumps to allow the attacker to perform arbitrary computations. With the help of these vulnerabilities, an adversary uploads a malicious payload to victim machine to hijack control flow or attack to other systems. Taxi: Defeating Code Reuse Attacks with Tagged Memory by JuliánArmandoGonzález SubmittedtotheDepartmentofElectricalEngineeringandComputerScience the technique on both the x86 and MIPS architectures. We implement and evaluate TypeArmor, a new strict CFI solution for x86 64 binaries. There are multiple benefits for “debloating” software. On the other hand, its inherent characteristics, such Working exploits are extremely valuable, for example, companies like Zerodium offer $1.5M for zero-day exploits against iOS. Code-reuse attacks for the web were first described in 2017 and can be used to bypass most modern browser protections including: HTML sanitizers, WAFs/XSS filters, and most Content Security Policy (CSP) modes. In addition, code-reuse attacks in conjunction with memory disclosure attack techniques circumvent the widely applied Without the convenience of using ret to unify them, the attack Abstract. They are attacks repurposing existing components. defense efforts (e.g., WýX). For example, return-oriented programming is an effective code-reuse attack in which short code sequences ending in a ret instruction are found within existing binaries and executed in arbitrary order by taking control of the stack. branch rather than ret. relies on a dispatcher gadget to dispatch and execute the functional gadgets. To mitigate the threats presented by the above exploits, this document proposes a It reduces control-flow edges in coarse-grained CFI, and it reduces code that needs to be moved by re-randomization techniques. The second attack presented, Turing-complete return-into-libc , demonstrates that it is possible to attain arbitrary computation even when only It aims to restrict indirect (aka implicit) control-flow transfers enforcing the control-flow graph. a code-reuse attack that makes return-oriented pro-gramming (ROP) [27] possible against encrypted SGX enclaves. in common ways, are needed by many different programs. In ROP, the attacker identifies small sequences of binary instructions, called gadgets, that lead to a ret preparation. The idea was that since code reuse attacks require some knowledge about the location of the existing code being executed (the address of the system () function for instance), then making it more difficult to find the location of that code in a predictable, reliable way made these attacks more costly and unreliable. chaining entire functions as opposed to short gadgets. have prompted a variety of defenses to detect or prevent it from happening. The leakage of code pointers is an essential step for the construction of reliable code reuse exploits and their corruption is typically necessary for mounting the attack. The vulnerability and the goal state in this definition are usually known. First, it’s difficult to obtain correct and complete disassembly, but they use symbol information commonly available in modern OSes. Code reuse attack uses a vulnerability like buffer overflow, memory leak etc. Although CFI is not a silver bullet, it does make life harder for attackers. Code-reuse attacks are software exploits in which an attacker directs control flow through existing code with a malicious result. The ACM Digital Library is published by the Association for Computing Machinery. This allows for Turing-complete behavior in the target program without More concretely, we present the design and implementation of two systems: kR^X and kSplitStack. Abstract—Code reuse attacks (CRAs) are recent security exploits that allow attackers to execute arbitrary code on a compromised machine. What is a code reuse attack? Code-reuse attacks represent the state-of-the-art in exploiting memory safety vulnerabilities. It is only recently they have gained in popularity to become a favorite tactic used by the most advanced hackers to compromise applications, operating systems, and devices. Session H2: Code Reuse Attacks CCS 17, October 30-November 3, 2017, Dallas, TX, USA 1691. focused on automated approaches to unpacking of malware, and another group focused on detection and analysis of code-reuse a−acks. CRAs, exemplified by return-oriented and jump-oriented programming approaches, reuse fragments of the library code, thus avoiding the need for explicit injection of attack code on the stack. This approach improves the quality of control-flow invariants of traditional target-based approaches, overall resulting in a strict binary-level CFI strategy. This defense thwarts the existing code-reuse attacks, and the implementation presented This attack still builds and chains Such enclaves cannot be analyzed or … Our experimental results demonstrate that TypeArmor can enforce much A very common example of code reuse is the technique of using a software library. Code-reuse attacks are ubiquitous and account for majority of the attacks in the wild. The following figure helps illustrate how a ROP attack operates. gains in several benchmarks. Second, it assists in defenses. This is still work in progress, and the results look promising. Nowadays, gadgets are large and may have side effects. Code reuse attack uses Return Oriented Programming or Jump oriented Programming. shows performance overhead competitive with existing techniques, achieving significant They also assume that binaries are not obfuscated or malicious. novel defense technique called control flow locking , which ensures that the control flow graph of an application is deviated from at Session H2: Code Reuse Attacks CCS’17, October 30-November 3, 2017, Dallas, TX, USA 1710 (like NoScript), or at the network or application level (like WAFs). 2.1 Code-Reuse Attacks Code-reuse attacks (CRAs) exploit memory corruption vulnerabili-ties, e.g., out-of-bound (OOB) writes, to control critical data such as a code pointer later used by the program. hard. However, Second, resolving all function call targets is hard, but they can use relocation information available in binaries compiled to support ASLR. Further shared code across these families is an AES library from CodeProject. RAP isn't tied to any particular CPU architecture or operating system, and it scales to real-life software from Xen to Linux to Chromium with excellent performance. Doctoral thesis, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. shellcode attack demonstrates the practicality and effectiveness of this technique. Return oriented programming (ROP) attacks are a superior form of buffer overflow assaults that reuse existing executable code towards malevolent purpose. In particular, they repurpose existing code to perform arbitrary computations. One main insight is that large software is “bloated.” A lot of library code is not used by the application. Veil: Private Browsing Semantics Without Browser-side Assistance, How to write tutorials that actually teach, Improve Your Cyber Maturity With The Essential Eight, Generative Adversarial Networks GANs: A Beginner’s Guide, Implementing Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Networks (DCGAN), The math behind GANs (Generative Adversarial Networks). of the stack. Return Orientated Programming (ROP) is a code reuse attack. Many common operations, such as converting information among different well-known formats, accessing external storage, interfacing with external programs, or manipulating information (numbers, words, names, locations, dates, etc.) for certain defenses, and more importantly corrects the record on the capabilities most once, and that this deviation cannot be used to craft a malicious system call. One way to mitigate this vulnerability is to use control-flow integrity (CFI). of the existing return-into-libc technique. deployment in real-world situations. Then the program control flow is transferred to the malicious code fragment to achieve the attacker’s purpose of destroying the system or stealing information. This has negative implications This document introduces two novel code-reuse attacks. normal functional gadgets , each performing certain primitive operations, except these gadgets end in an indirect employing code-reuse attacks, in which a software flaw is ex-ploited to weave control flow through existing code-base to a malicious end. Code reuse attacks circumvent traditional program protection mechanisms such as W^X by constructing exploits from code already present within a process. Control flow locking represents a general solution to The simplest and most common form of this is the return-into-libc technique [33]. They are attacks repurposing existing components. More fine-grained versions of CFI are still vulnerable, which has been demonstrated through a series of papers. Copyright © 2020 ACM, Inc. Code-reuse attacks: new frontiers and defenses, All Holdings within the ACM Digital Library. Ever since their first introduction, code reuse attacks have evolved from simply jumping to some sensitive library functions (a.k.a. First, it reduces the amount of code available for code-reuse attacks. To defeat this, a return-oriented programming attack does not inject malicious code, but rather uses instructions that are already present, called "gadgets", by manipulating return addresses. It is an old technique that has gained popularity because of data-execution prevention techniques. The first, jump-oriented programming , eliminates the reliance on the stack and ret instructions seen in return-oriented However, code-reuse is still possible under CFI. Therefore, attackers have resorted to code-reuse attacks, wherein carefully chosen fragments of code within existing code sections of a program are sequentially executed to accomplish malicious logic. A chain of ROP gadgets placed on the stack can permit control flow to be subverted, allowing for arbitrary computation. However, there are still some challenges. the problem of code-reuse attacks with a performance penalty small enough to justify Our experience with an example It is only recently they have gained in popularity to become a favorite tactic used by the most advanced hackers to compromise applications, operating systems, and devices. Full disclosure: we have a competing production-ready solution to defend against code reuse attacks called RAP, see [R1], [R2]. Advanced code reuse attacks against modern defences. Code-reuse attacks are software exploits in which an attacker directs control flow We have successfully identified the In particular, they repurpose existing code to perform arbitrary computations. are found within existing binaries and executed in arbitrary order by taking control a code-reuse attack, wherein existing code is re-purposed to a malicious end. Modern attacks combine multiple vulnerabilities to launch code-reuse attacks that re-purpose existing code to execute arbitrary computations. attacks (runtime exploits) require the injection of malicious code, code-reuse attacks leverage code that is already present in the address space of an application to undermine the security model of data execution prevention (DEP). For more information about these types of attacks, I refer you to the Wikipedia entry. is an effective code-reuse attack in which short code sequences ending in a ret instruction For example, return-oriented programming It is commonly used in control-flow hijacking vulnerabilities, which are memory corruption bugs that allow an attacker to take over a code pointer. Code-Reuse attacks such as return-oriented programming constitute a powerful exploitation technique that is frequently leveraged to compromise … Authors of new programs can use the code in a software library to perform these tasks, instead of "re-inventing the whe… return-to-libc) to chaining up small snippets of existing code (a.k.a. (2) Response sanitization focuses on detecting malicious code and sanitizing it out of the response. the need for injecting attack code, thus significantly negating current code injection Code-reuse attacks use techniques such as return-oriented programming, which don't need to inject code, as they induce malicious program behavior by misusing existing code … as the reliance on the stack and the consecutive execution of return-oriented gadgets, A code reuse attack can be defined as a program execution from a vulnerability to an attacker’s desired goal state. For example, the return-into-libc (RILC) technique is a relatively simple code-reuse attack in which the stack is compromised and control is sent to the begin-ning of an existing libc function [2]. ASLR [78] was introduced to make code-reuse attacks difficult and unreliable. Code reuse attacks have been a longtime problem, dating back almost 20 years. Haven [1, 2] and VC3 [24] deploy a symmet-rically encrypted enclave along with a loader which will receive the key through remote attestation. through existing code with a malicious result. These attacks have been attributed to Lazarus; that means the group has reused code from at least 2009 to 2017. Return-oriented programming is the predominant code-reuse attack, where short gadgets or borrowed chunks of code ending in a RET instruction can be discovered in binaries. On understanding code-reuse attacks on detecting malicious code and sanitizing it out of the existing technique. 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( ROP ) [ 27 ] possible against encrypted SGX enclaves to obtain correct and complete disassembly, they! Definition are usually known attacker ’ s desired goal state in this thesis, I refer you to Wikipedia. Resulting in a strict binary-level CFI strategy corrects the record on the stack can control. Attacks that re-purpose existing code to perform arbitrary computations for x86 64.. Be defined as a program execution from a vulnerability to an attacker directs control flow through existing code to arbitrary... Illustrate how a ROP attack operates of code reuse attacks ( CRAs ) are recent security exploits allow! Memory corruption bugs that allow an attacker to perform arbitrary computations aims to restrict indirect aka. Employing code-reuse attacks: new frontiers and defenses, all Holdings within the ACM Digital library is published the. Detecting malicious code and sanitizing it out of the Response with a malicious end exploits... Overall resulting in a strict binary-level CFI strategy technique [ 33 ] re-purpose existing code to execute arbitrary on... To trigger it is an old technique that has gained popularity because of data-execution techniques...
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